Academics Underground: Adaan, Layanan, dan Pengguna Jasa Bimbingan Skripsi di Jogja
Penulis: Hujair AH. Sanaky, Imam Samroni, Mukalam, Edi Safitri, Muhammad Qowim
Pusat Studi Islam Universitas Islam Indonesia
Matters appertaining to graduate students’ mini-thesis writing and the mini-thesis writing guidance offers of mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus in Yogyakarta were the clichés that were also found in other education cities in Indonesia. The study aimed at (1) analyzing the background of the presence of the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus outside of campus, (2) mapping the forms of the mini-thesis writing guidance service, and (3) identifying the characteristics of the users of the mini-thesis writing guidance service.
Based on the review of a number of literatures the correlation between higher education and state and market was indicative of some tendencies and the pro-contra of higher school campuses as captive market and students as the biggest population of each of the campus along with their needs. In other hand, the obligation for the students to write mini-thesis related in certain condition to the specific need for the mini-thesis writing guidance services offered by the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus.
The study identified four categories, which were the Demand for Mini-thesis Writing Guidance Service, the Need for Mini-thesis Writing, Mini-thesis Writing Guidance Service, and Transaction Background. The Demand for Mini-thesis Writing Guidance was the pattern of the demand of the users for the service provided by the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus and also the services that could/could not be provided by the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus. The Need for Mini-thesis Writing was the one that must be satisfied by students during the preparation of the mini-thesis writing, including financing, permission arrangement, the ability to conduct a study, information and data access, and the time necessary for the mini-thesis writing. Mini-thesis Writing Guidance Service was an offer by the external party for the students –both from the mini-thesis writing advisors and the mini-thesis writhing guidance bureaus outside of campus—such as drafting, data collection, data tabulation and processing, mini-thesis consultation, editing and revision. The availability of such various services determined to certain extent the quality of the mini-thesis writing guidance. Meanwhile, the Transaction Background was cases uniqueness that influenced the transaction between the users of the services and the management of the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus. Thus, the transaction took place and included the background of the students and that of the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus.
The data was collected by investigating the advertisements of the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus at seven newspapers in the period of February-March 2007, which were Bernas Jogja (February 14th), Kompas Jogja (February 24th), Radar Jogja (February 27th), Koran Merapi (February 27th), Kedaulatan Rakyat (February 28th and March 1st), and Seputar Indonesia (February 28th). Additionally, the data was also collected by Internet searching and by using interview with informants, especially that of the mini-thesis writing guidance services and the pro-contra of the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus, blogs and mailing lists and the history and the policy of the mini-thesis.
Subsequently, the author conducted survey and participatory observation using in-depth interview with the resource persons of the mini-thesis writhing guidance bureaus in order to uncover and to identify what was referred to as underground academic phenomena. The interview was of the kind of unstructured, less interrupted and arbitrary one to gather non-standard information and to emphasize exceptions, divergences and unusual interpretation. It went like daily life conversation and hence it took weeks. The samples of the mini-thesis writhing guidance bureaus were drawn using non-probability and accidental sampling techniques. There were seven mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus of ten such bureaus considered to be eligible for the study because none of the bureaus as services delivering institution that were purely financed by investors. The author has ever heard such “investment” mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus and it was confirmed by the students and the informants. However, the results of further investigation showed that there was no such bureau. Additionally, a resource person of the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus denied continuing “the conversation” for the reason of avoiding unpleasant image of Yogyakarta as education city.
The data was analyzed following the steps as follows: data coding, matrix formulation, incidence index filling, conceptual causal net formulation and conclusion test. The conclusion test was conducted using cross-case analysis and triangulation. The cross-case analysis was made by comparing the mini-thesis writing guidance and the mini-thesis or dissertation writing guidance case, while the triangulation was made using structured interview with 20 resource persons, consisting of 10 students (5 males and 5 females of 5 public higher schools and 5 private higher schools); 5 advisors (2 males and 3 females of 3 public higher schools and 2 private higher schools); and 5 higher school managers (4 males and 1 female of 3 public higher schools and 2 private higher schools in Yogyakarta.
Based on the results of the analysis of the in-field notes of the 7 resource persons of the mini-thesis writhing guidance bureaus about campus culture, client motivation, the characteristics of the actors of the bureaus and the external factors of the bureaus and considering the results of the cross-case analysis and the triangulation, it could be concluded that the background of the presence of the bureaus was as follows: the non-optimum mini-thesis writhing guidance by the campus mini-thesis writing advisors, the increase in the demand for the mini-thesis (and also thesis and/or dissertation) writing guidance service, and also the lack of the policy of the financing schema of campus management in the preparation of the final assignment. The need of the students was the successful accomplishment of the final assignment, while the goals of the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus were the satisfaction of the users of the services they provided and the timeliness. The transaction process resulted from the demand and the supply of the services and it strengthened pro-market campus pop culture versus academic culture. It was in such campus culture that the emergence of the external mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus had the very potential to continuously provide the extra campus academic services for the purpose of enriching or repeating the academic materials as sovereign buyers.
Answering the question of the study of the forms of the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus, an analysis of the in-field notes of the 7 bureaus about bureau identity of the bureaus, marketing method, the contact of the clients and the bureaus, service time, the service time per individual, the time necessary to provide the service, working area, the kinds of service, service transaction, service rate, the method in writing the mini-thesis, professional risk and guarantee and also business climate was made. The results of the analysis were then further processed using the cross-case analysis and the triangulation. Therefore, it could be concluded that the forms of the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus were ability, discretion and service guarantee. The added value of the extra-campus academic bureaus was found in the satisfaction of the users of the academic services they offered as compared to those provided in campus.
The mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus might work independently or as teams, did not have any legality, represented intermediary/part-time profession, did not/have not need to establish subsidiaries, were staffed with academician degree (S1) holders, and were able to accomplish all of the jobs in the working areas necessary in wiring mini-thesis, thesis and/or dissertation in satisfying clients’ needs and were supported by up-to-date data bank. The marketing method they employed was of the kind of word-out-mouth one and based on friendship networking. The time framework tended to be casual. The bureaus provided the users with easy transaction and service rate determination. The mini-thesis writing method might be original and non-imitation. Also, they provided the users of their academic services with a kind of mini-thesis examination simulation. Concerning with the business climate they considered the existing competition was still normal.
The ability, the discretion, the ease and the guarantee that characterized the academic services provided by the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus posed a threat to academic world. Also, they cause the emergence of campus criminal academic tradition. When the academic culture represented the identity of the higher schools and any thing that threatened the academic world was considered to be criminal, developing academic culture was categorized into imperative. The imperative category referred to self-fulfilling norm or on the contrary self-defeating prohibiting norm. The non-optimal development of the campus academic culture not only strengthened economic culture with market-oriented tendency of the demand and the supply of the extra-campus mini-thesis writing guidance services.
Based on the results of the analysis of the in-field notes of the 7 mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus about the sex, the origin and the characteristics of the clients and considering the results of the cross-case analysis and the triangulation, it could be concluded that the client’s characteristic of sex, which was male or female, was considered to be insignificant. The characteristics of the origin of the clients were as follows: There were more clients of private higher schools of origin than those coming from public higher schools and generally they were the students of non-engineering faculties/departments/study programs. Meanwhile, the characteristics of the users of the extra-campus academic services were as follows: There were more clients coming from regular and extension classes and living quite far from campus; they were the students of the sixth to the ninth semesters facing drop-out threat; and they have already had certain occupation. There was not any characteristic of the students of teacher profession or those with the motivation to complete their study the fastest or those who were double-degrees students.
The correlation between the characteristics of the students who were the users of the extra-campus academic service provided by the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus as “academic entrepreneurship” was indicative of the presence of the following patterns:
1. Client pattern, which put the users of the academic services in the position of the clients of the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus. The bureaus worked with their own methods and the process was uninterruptible because the users have completely entrusted the writing of the mini-thesis. The client pattern represented the bureaus of S type (Self-employed).
2. Buyer pattern, which put the users of the academic services in the position of the buyers of the academic services provided by the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus. The bureaus worked completely under the directive of the users. The buyer pattern represented the bureaus of E type (Employee).
3. Partner pattern, which put the users of the academic services provided by the mini-thesis writing guidance bureaus in the position to appreciate the academic services related to their needs in writing the mini-thesis. The bureaus developed systems, relationships and accesses in satisfying the users’ needs that they could not satisfied themselves. The partner pattern represented the bureaus of B type (Business Owner).
Based on the aforementioned description, the study proposed two things. First, when the need for the mini-thesis writing was smaller than the mini-thesis writing guidance service, the background of the transaction was more likely to increase the demand for the mini-thesis writing guidance service. Second, when the need for the mini-thesis writing was bigger than the mini-thesis writing guidance service, the background of the transaction was more likely to decrease the demand for the mini-thesis writing guidance service.