Teks Kajen dan Serat Cebolek Sebagai Model Pembelajaran Resolusi Konflik: Studi Metaetika
Penulis: Muslikh Ks., Imam Samroni, Budi Suprojo, M. Latif Fauzi
Pusat Studi Islam Universitas Islam Indonesia
The study represented the follow-up of a number of concerns and recommendation of the design of society capable of committing reconciliation through local wisdom revitalization. The strong togetherness spirit that was based on the local wisdom had the potential to prevent and/or to settle the emerging conflicts in the togetherness spirit.
Chapter one was an introduction and it described the background of study, the questions of study, the objectives of study, the uses of study and discussion. The background of the study was the strong tendency to revitalize the local wisdom as the learning source in conflict resolution. Therefore, three questions were asked without any hypothesis test of the background of the conflict between Moslem scholars (ulama) and al-Mutamakkin, the causal factor for Paku Buwono II not to implement the guidance of the Moslem scholars (fatwa) to sentence al-Mutamakkin to death and the conflict resolution learning model of Kajen and Serat Debolek texts. It was expected that the study was useful for the development of scientific knowledge, for government apparatus and people in general.
Chapter two was literature review and it proved the originality of the study of the relation and the conflict among the followers of religions, the relation between state and religion, conflict resolution and conflict resolution learning models. Based on the literature review it was proven that there has not been any meta-ethics study of Kajen and Serat Cebolek texts as conflict resolution learning source and it became a sufficient reason to study the relation and the conflict among the followers of religions, religions and state.
Chapter three was study method and it described the kind and the nature of study, data source, data analysis method, study approach, and operational definition. The study was of the kind of literature study of historical concepts, especially meta-ethics and philosophical in nature. The primary data source was Kajen and Serat Cebolek texts, while the secondary data source was the papers and the studies of the Kajen and the Serat Cebolek along with relevant explanations, reports, books and articles. The methodic elements of the data analysis were interpretation, induction and deduction, historical continuity and description. The study used historical concept approach to the resolution conflict concept in the Kajen and the Serat Cebolek texts as alternative learning model, which was considered to be the philosophical concept or idea that always reappeared and considered to be the material object of the study.
Chapter four was results and discussion and it dealt with al-Mutamakkin’s thoughts and religious concept, the conflict between al-Mutamakkin and Moslem scholars and state apparatus, the trial process of al-Mutamakkin, the case settlement schema of al-Mutamakkin, and the meta-ethics analysis of Paku Buwono II’s decision on the trial of al-Mutamakkin. The results of the study showed that al-Mutamakkin’s thoughts and concept caused a conflict between Moslem scholars and state apparatus. The conflict was settled by organizing a trial by Moslem scholars (ulama), which was referred to as “rekalan” that especially dealt with the conflict. The result of the trial process became the basis for the king to make a decision and the meta-ethics analysis put more emphasis on the investigation of the king’s decision not to implement the decision of the Moslem scholars, which was to sentence al-Mutamakkin to death along with the conflict resolution schema referring to the factors of politics, economics, king-mysticist concept, and also social-religious situation.
Chapter five was conclusion and recommendation and represented a concluding chapter. The first conclusion was that the background of the conflict between the Moslem scholars and the state apparatus and Syekh Ahmad al-Mutamakkin was the assumption that al-Mutamakkin has illuminated the knowledge of truth (ilmu hakikat) to people in general behaved in a deviant manner (by raising dog and loving to tell Bima Suci story) and was rebellious to the power of the king. The second conclusion was that Paku Buwana II as the king did not implement the guidance of the Moslem scholars to sentence al-Mutamakkin to death because of the factors of politics, economics, king-mysticist concept, and social-religious situation. The third conclusion was that the conflict resolution learning model included three steps, which were negotiation, mediation and mediation-arbitration. Another model was khaul tradition on every 10th day of Asyura/Muharam in Kajen as the media to socialize the conflict resolution.
The study gave the following recommendation: A methodology should be developed using the local wisdom as contained in Serat Cebolek and Kajen texts as the conflict resolution learning source. The government apparatus should issue the legislation on public official ethics. People in general should elaborate other vocabulary of local wisdoms.